Class participation grades

Grades are based on applying the following schema to each student's participation in each class and then averaging across all classes (excluding the introductory 1st class).

5: Absent (up to a maximum of 4 times)

6: Present but silent

7: 2 or more ordinary contributions

8: 1 good contribution (that I consider particularly pertinent, thoughtful, and sophisticated)

8.5: 2 good contributions (or one 'excellent' contribution, which counts double throughout)

9: 3 good contributions

9.5: 4 good contributions

10: 5 good contributions

11: 7 or more good contributions

Obviously final grades cannot be above 10, but 10 is possible.